Diseases of the feet in children

The apparent anomaly is still one of the 100 newborns, they usually go away without treatment. Because of the fat pad in the arch of the foot may get the wrong impression of flatfoot. In the normal structure of the foot can be seen when the child stands on tiptoe. Normally, the internal arch looks arched. If a child under school age have pains or cramps in the feet because of flat feet, may be needed orthopedic shoes.

 


Infertility

 

Infertility — the inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy within 1 year of regular sexual intercourse without contraception.
For example, in the U.S. infertility observed, on average, one out of every five couples. This state is becoming more and more common as people get married at an older age and a more distant period postpone conception. However, in 60% of cases where the pregnancy of a woman not come after a year of sexual activity in the absence of contraception, it may come later, as with medication, and without it. The goal of treatment is to reduce the time before pregnancy.
With increasing age of the woman to achieve pregnancy becomes less likely. After 35 years she has limited time to solve the problem of infertility to menopause.

Infertility — the inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy within 1 year of regular sexual intercourse without contraception.


For example, in the U.S. infertility observed, on average, one out of every five couples. This state is becoming more and more common as people get married at an older age and a more distant period postpone conception. However, in 60% of cases where the pregnancy of a woman not come after a year of sexual activity in the absence of contraception, it may come later, as with medication, and without it. The goal of treatment is to reduce the time before pregnancy.

 

symptoms


If a woman who lives a regular sex life without the use of contraceptives for 12 months did not become pregnant, doctors say the diagnosis of «infertility.»


Causes


There are different causes of infertility. Divide them into causes associated with the pathology of cancer (tumors, adenomyosis, endometriosis), or fallopian tubes (infectious processes, spikes, etc.), disorders of the female gonads (ovaries). In addition, the release causes hormonal, genetic and immunological studies. All of these options apply to female infertility. Among the causes of male infertility are usually distinguished: varicocele, infections, immune and endocrine factors, breach the composition or quality of sperm, sexual disorders (problems with erection, ejaculation), the pathology of the male sexual organs, hereditary (genetic) factors


With increasing age of the woman to achieve pregnancy becomes less likely. After 35 years she has limited time to solve the problem of infertility to menopause.


diagnostics


Accurate diagnosis of infertility can only be made on the results of all the necessary research: interviews and medical history, clarify the nuances of the menstrual cycle and to determine the general state of women’s health, general and gynecological examination, testing for signs of infection, hormonal evaluation. Of instrumental methods of examination are mandatory: a pelvic ultrasound, and endoscopy gisterospalpingografiya.


treatment


Infertility Treatment depends on the cause of it. If infertility is associated with endocrine disorders and malfunctioning of the menstrual cycle, prescribed drugs that inhibit the action of the female sex hormones (estrogens). In case of problems with the uterus or fallopian tube pathology often resort to surgery. Common form of infertility treatment is currently the in vitro fertilization (IVF, ICSI).

 

femoral hernia

 

Car injuries — the main cause of death in all age groups, from 4 of them dies 100,000 infants, 7 of 100 000 children aged 1 to 14 years and up to 40 — 100 000 young people aged 15-24 years.
A child that is not fastened seat belt or child, who is not in a properly installed child seat may be the only victim of the sudden braking, which is not accompanied by any damage to the vehicle or injury to other passengers.
To reduce the probability and severity of injury in a crash, all passengers are required to use a car seat belts and babies (weighing less than 18 kg) must be in a properly installed child safety seats. To avoid air bag injury, children should sit in the rear seat. Compliance is reduces mortality by 40-50%, and the number of serious injuries — by 45-55%. The laws of most states require that the child was wearing a seat belt or a (small child) was in a safety seat. The child who is holding an adult, even wearing a seat belt, it is extremely vulnerable to a crash. In the event of an accident adult is not able to keep the child, and even at low speeds it throws with tremendous force. For example, to hold a child weighing 4.5 kg during sudden braking of the car traveling at a speed of 48 km / h, the required force needed to lift a mass of 136 kg at 0.3 m from the ground. Adult who is not wearing a seat belt can be thrown forward with a force many times greater than its weight, and to injure the child.
The child must be fastened in the safety seat appropriate to the age and weight. Child safety seat should be paid in the opposite direction of the vehicle. It can be used to transport children weighing up to 7 kg. This rear-facing child seat should be placed in the rear seat of the car, which is particularly important when the car has air bags. Safety seats for children weighing between 7 and 18 kg should be facing forward, equipped with shoulder straps and protect the feet and provide protection for the head. Safety seat must be installed in the vehicle according to the manufacturer’s instructions, otherwise the risk of injury to a child can be raised. Young person should be wearing a seat belt.
Online offer a wide range of models of child safety seats. Those that meet the standards of safety in case of accidents, are marked accordingly.

 

 


Femoral hernia — hernia of the stomach, which is the hernial gap thigh under the inguinal ligament.

If the hernia is not treated, there is a risk of infringement of the internal organs in the hernial ring. During the disturbed blood flow infringement aggrieved body, which quickly leads to gangrene.

 

symptoms



Under the inguinal crease, on the front of the thigh, reveals elastic bulge. Most femoral hernia does not cause symptoms. Perhaps a sense of discomfort in the groin, which is increasing when lifting weights or straining of the abdominal muscles.

Sometimes, the first symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Such attributes speak about the infringement of the abdominal cavity, which is an indication for emergency surgery.


Causes


 

In most cases the causes of femoral hernia is not identified. Some hernias can be congenital, but already identified during life. Some factors that contribute to the development of hernia:

chronic constipation

chronic cough

obesity

weight lifting

Difficulty in urination due to prostate enlargement

Femoral hernias are more common among women. This is explained by anatomical features.

 



diagnostics


Femoral hernia is detected in the surgical examination. If it is not noticeable at rest, the patient is asked to cough or strain. Confirm the suspicion of femoral hernia may ultrasound or CT scan.

 

 

 

 

Herpes pregnant

Herpes pregnant — is intensely itchy rash that appears during pregnancy and consists of fluid-filled vesicles.
Itchy rash usually consists of a small, fluid-filled bubbles (vesicles) and large, irregularly shaped fluid-filled blisters (bullae). It often begins in the abdomen, then spreads to other parts of the body. Sometimes the rash forms a ring on the skin. As a rule, it is enhanced shortly after birth and then disappear for a few weeks or months. Often the rash appears again in subsequent pregnancies or use of oral contraceptives. Baby can also be born with a similar rash, which usually disappears within a few weeks without treatment.
The term «herpes» can be misleading, since the rash is caused by the herpes virus or any other virus. Herpes during pregnancy, apparently caused by abnormal antibodies that react against the body’s own tissue (that is, there is an autoimmune reaction). It is a rare disease that can occur at any time after the 12th week of pregnancy or immediately after delivery.
To confirm the diagnosis doctor performs a biopsy — removes a small portion of the affected skin and sends it to a laboratory to determine whether the antibodies are present.
The goal of treatment is to relieve intense itching and prevent the formation of new bubbles. In mild rash help frequent application of the cream with corticosteroid directly to the skin. For the treatment of the more common rashes corticosteroids administered orally (po). Acceptance of these hormones in late pregnancy, apparently, does not harm the fetus. If the itching is getting worse or is the spread of the rash after delivery, may be necessary, a higher dose of corticosteroids.

Herpes pregnant — is intensely itchy rash that appears during pregnancy and consists of fluid-filled vesicles.

Itchy rash usually consists of a small, fluid-filled bubbles (vesicles) and large, irregularly shaped fluid-filled blisters (bullae). It often begins in the abdomen, then spreads to other parts of the body. Sometimes the rash forms a ring on the skin. As a rule, it is enhanced shortly after birth and then disappear for a few weeks or months. Often the rash appears again in subsequent pregnancies or use of oral contraceptives. Baby can also be born with a similar rash, which usually disappears within a few weeks without treatment.

The term «herpes» can be misleading, since the rash is caused by the herpes virus or any other virus. Herpes during pregnancy, apparently caused by abnormal antibodies that react against the body’s own tissue (that is, there is an autoimmune reaction). It is a rare disease that can occur at any time after the 12th week of pregnancy or immediately after delivery.

To confirm the diagnosis doctor performs a biopsy — removes a small portion of the affected skin and sends it to a laboratory to determine whether the antibodies are present.

The goal of treatment is to relieve intense itching and prevent the formation of new bubbles. In mild rash help frequent application of the cream with corticosteroid directly to the skin. For the treatment of the more common rashes corticosteroids administered orally (po). Acceptance of these hormones in late pregnancy, apparently, does not harm the fetus. If the itching is getting worse or is the spread of the rash after delivery, may be necessary, a higher dose of corticosteroids.

Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids — congested vascular plexus, which are located in the wall of the rectum and anus.
Hemorrhoids are inflamed, enlarged and bulging, they may develop a blood clot, they can be a source of bleeding. Hemorrhoids, which remain within the anus, called internal, bulging out of the anus — external.

Hemorrhoids — congested vascular plexus, which are located in the wall of the rectum and anus.


Hemorrhoids are inflamed, enlarged and bulging, they may develop a blood clot, they can be a source of bleeding. Hemorrhoids, which remain within the anus, called internal, bulging out of the anus — external.

Hemorrhoids can occur due to constant voltage during a bowel movement, which is associated most often with constipation. To formation of hemorrhoids are sometimes liver diseases that are accompanied by

A doctor can easily detect swollen painful hemorrhoids, examining the anus and rectum. Anoscopy and sigmoidoscopy can help determine whether the patient has a serious illness, such as cancer.
Hemorrhoids do not require treatment if symptoms do not bother. Acceptance of laxatives or psyllium reduces constipation and stress which is a bowel movement. Bleeding from hemorrhoids stop the introduction of a substance that causes the overgrowth of scar tissue vein, a method is called sclerotherapy.

Large internal hemorrhoids and components that resist the action of sclerotherapy, tie rubber threads. This procedure is painless and drying of falling haemorrhoid. It runs on a single node of the hemorrhoidal in one session, then on the other, at intervals of two weeks or more. Typically required 3-6 sessions of treatment. Hemorrhoids can be destroyed with a laser (laser destruction), infrared radiation (infrared photocoagulation) or electric current (electrocautery). If these treatments do not work, do the operation.

If hemorrhoids with clots can cause pain, it is treated with warm baths seating (the patient sits in a basin filled with water), local anesthetics with ointments and apply compresses. Pain and swelling are usually reduced in a short time, and blood clots disappear within 4-6 weeks. As an alternative measure doctor cuts and removes the vein blood clot, to quickly relieve pain.

Gastritis

Gastritis — inflammation of the lining of the stomach clizistoy.
Clizistaya shell resists stomach irritation and can withstand the effect of a very strong acid. But for many reasons clizistoy irritation and inflammation of the stomach becomes possible.

Gastritis — inflammation of the lining of the stomach clizistoy.


Clizistaya shell resists stomach irritation and can withstand the effect of a very strong acid. But for many reasons clizistoy irritation and inflammation of the stomach becomes possible.


Symptoms depend on the type of gastritis. Typically, for any form of gastritis characterized dyspepsia (pain, swelling and discomfort) in the upper abdomen.


Acute stress gastritis. Manifestations of the underlying disease, injury or burns usually override symptoms of the stomach, however, the patient may experience discomfort in the upper abdomen. Shortly after the injury clizistoy membrane of the stomach developed small hemorrhages, which in a few hours turn into ulcers. Ulcers and gastritis are, if a person recovers quickly from injury. However, if treatment is delayed, the ulcers enlarge and begin to bleed, usually occurs within 2-5 days after the injury. Blood gives feces black and viscous, liquid content of the stomach — red, and in severe cases, blood pressure begins to fall. The bleeding may be profuse, and lead to death.


Chronic erosive gastritis. Symptoms include mild nausea and pain in the upper abdomen. However, many patients, such as long-term users of aspirin, pain does not occur. Some people develop symptoms that resemble the plague, particularly pain in between meals. If gastritis leads to the formation of stomach ulcers and bleeding, symptoms include appearance of a black stool (melena), vomiting blood (gematomezis) or partially digested blood that looks like coffee grounds in appearance.

Eosinophilic gastritis. Abdominal pain and vomiting may be caused by the narrowing or obstruction (blockage) of the output from the stomach into the duodenum.

Menetries disease. The most common symptom is abdominal pain. Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and weight loss are less common, as well as bleeding from the stomach. Fluid retention and edema can be caused by protein loss from the inflamed clizistoy the stomach. This protein is mixed with the contents of the stomach and out of the body.

Plazmotsitarny gastritis. Abdominal pain and vomiting can be combined with the appearance of skin rash and diarrhea.

Gastritis as a result of radiation therapy is accompanied by pain, nausea, and heartburn due to inflammation, sometimes due to the development of gastric ulcers. If the wall is perforated ulcers of the stomach (gastric perforation), the content falls into the abdominal cavity, causing peritonitis (inflammation of the membrane clizistoy abdominal cavity) and severe pain. The result is a serious condition characterized by muscle tension doskoobraznym abdomen and requires urgent surgical intervention. In rare cases, after radiation output from the stomach is narrowed due to fibrosis, which causes abdominal pain and vomiting. Exposure can damage the protective lining of the stomach clizistuyu, so that the bacteria invade his wall, causing sudden severe gastritis, which is characterized by very severe pain.
Bacterial gastritis is usually caused by pyloric helicobacter infection (Helicobacter pylori). These bacteria live on the surface of the mucus-producing cells of the stomach clizistoy. No other bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach does not grow healthy, but if the stomach does not produce enough acid in it can develop many other types of microorganisms. Bacteria in such abundance can cause acute or chronic gastritis.

Acute stress gastritis — the worst form of acute gastritis — cause sudden serious illness or injury, and not necessarily the stomach. Typical causes of this form of gastritis — extensive burns and injuries, accompanied by heavy bleeding.

Chronic erosive gastritis is caused by irritants such as drugs, especially aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, occurs in Crohn’s disease, bacterial and viral infections. This type of gastritis may be slow to develop in people who otherwise healthy, it is accompanied by bleeding or ulceration. Is more common in people who abuse alcohol.

Viral or fungal gastritis develops as a result of a prolonged illness, or damage to the immune system.

Eosinophilic gastritis is a result of allergic reactions to infection with worms. With this type of gastritis in the stomach wall accumulate eosinophils.

Atrophic Gastritis occurs when the lining of the stomach affect clizistuyu antibodies, causing its thinning and loss of many or all of the cells that produce acid. This condition is most common in older people, as well as in patients who deleted a portion of the stomach (gastrectomy). Atrophic gastritis can cause pernicious anemia, because this disease is disturbed absorption of vitamin B12 from food.

Menetries disease — a kind of gastritis, the reason is unknown. In this disease develop thick large folds of the stomach wall, lymph nodes, form a fluid-filled cyst. About 10% of people with the disease Menetries developing cancer of the stomach.

Plazmotsitarny gastritis — a form of gastritis, the cause of which is also unknown. In this disease in the wall of the stomach and other organs accumulate plasma cells (a type of white blood cells).

Ingestion of corrosive substances such as cleaning fluids, or active exposure to radiation, such as during radiotherapy can induce gastritis.